Diabetes Has Five Classifications, Researchers Say

Diabetes Has Five Classifications, Researchers Say

Diabetes Has Five Classifications, Researchers Say

They came up with instead of five subtypes, which are classified on the basis of the development of the disease and its complications. Diabetes here hit when patients were young and appeared healthy, but had an immune disease that left them unable to produce insulin. Cluster 1 corresponds to what could be called classic type 1 diabetes, while clusters 4 and 5 correspond to type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is where the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin - a key hormone that helps break down sugar.

The first results of ANDIS - a study covering all newly diagnosed diabetics in southern Sweden-can be seen now.

Diabetes influences around one of every 11 grown-ups worldwide and expands the risk of heart assault, stroke, blindness, kidney failure and appendage removal. They also identified four distinct subtypes of type 2 diabetes, but could not confirm whether it could change over time for a patient. To demonstrate their argument, they analyzed health data from almost 15,000 Swedish people with type 2 diabetes, focusing on six variables that had been measured and recorded at the time of their diagnosis: age, body mass index, the presence of beta-cell antibodies, level of metabolic control and measures of beta-cell function and insulin resistance.

The scientists from Lund University Diabetes Centre and Skåne University Hospital in Malmö, Sweden, and the Institute for Molecular Medicine, Helsinki, Finland, analysed 5 studies involving 14,775 adults from Sweden and Finland who had recently been diagnosed with diabetes.

But the study authors, from the University of Gothenberg and Lund University in Sweden, say additional subgroups are needed.

The researchers describe this as a paradigm shift in how to view the disease and say tailoring treatment to the different types could be more beneficial for patients than current treatment methods.

This final cluster sees patients who developed diabetes at significantly older ages than other groups, with the condition taking a milder form in this case.

"Today, diagnoses are performed by measuring blood sugar", Groop said. Diabetic eye disease was most common in this group.

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Group 5, the mild age-related diabetes is the largest group and consists of the most elderly patients.

Another group facing serious complications was composed of relatively young, insulin-deficient patients.

There were 6 measurements analyzed that are used to monitor those with diabetes: age at onset of illness, body mass index, long-term glycemic control, insulin resistance, insulin secretion and presence of auto-antibodies associated with autoimmune diseases.

Cluster 2 was mainly defined as severely insulin-deficient as well as GADA negative.

Other researchers caution that the team's results need to be replicated elsewhere, using even more diverse patient samples.

While the study had limited non-Scandinavian involvement, similar studies are in the works in China and India with people of different ethnic backgrounds.

Cluster 4 (21.6 percent): Obese by not insulin resistant, labeled as mild obesity-related diabetes.

According to researchers, the more specific categorization could lead to a more targeted and personalized treatment for diabetes.

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